Reine-mère (Littérature) (French Edition)
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Antwerp, just like the whole of Flanders, became officially monolingual. Still, the passing of a law is one thing, while its implementation or enforcement is another: francophone schools existed next to Dutch-language schools in Antwerp until the end of the s. Indeed, also outside the official sphere, language encounters and controversies, translation and transfer activities between French and Dutch continued to shape the daily life of the city and its inhabitants during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century.
Cultural life in Antwerp had two parallel circuits, one Dutch and one francophone, each with its own societies and theatres.
Antwerp also had its francophone newspapers until late in the twentieth century. View all notes On the other hand, Dutch-language cultural life and institutions developed and sometimes took position against the francization of the city. Een Politieke Cultuur van Klagen en Vernieuwen. In , the city council created a so-called volksboekerij [popular library], a lending library in which three-quarters of the purchased books had to be in Dutch, while the other quarter had to be in French Somers Somers, Marc.
Antwerp also became the most important city of Flemish literary periodicals. More so than any other Flemish city, it was capable of ensuring enough readers for these periodicals. The city further had its Nationaal Tooneel [National Theatre] which performed its plays from onwards in the Nederlandse Schouwburg [Dutch Theatre]. As a result, from the last quarter of the nineteenth century onwards, Antwerp had not only become the centre of Flemish political action, but was also an important centre of Flemish cultural life.
Moreover, many young writers 10 For example, Sabbe or De Meyer. View all notes came to Antwerp in order to develop their literary personality and were rapidly assimilated by the city. In the aftermath of the First World War, Antwerp was the place where the internationally oriented artistic avant-garde was also involved in political activism for Flemish emancipation.
Indeed, the above-described parallel circuits were not totally separated. During the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, life in Antwerp was profoundly marked by the encounter of Dutch and French and by translation and transfer processes in all possible forms. For example, in Antwerp Dutch-language newspapers the number of Gallicisms, in relation to the total number of words, represented no less than But in Dutch was still full of French words and expressions Peeters , quoted in Willemyns Willemyns, Roland.
View all notes However, this translational state, as well as the evolutions it underwent, remains a blind spot Deseure et al. This gap is, moreover, illustrative of a larger lack of knowledge concerning complex patterns of interaction in multilingual contexts in which translation forms one transfer activity among many others, taking shape and sense in relation to these other transfer practices.
A privileged way to gain understanding of transfer activities in multilingual contexts is to focus on the people who incorporate them.
Sylvie Weil - Littérature
Instrumental for cultural interactions in multilingual contexts at large and in the urban Antwerpian landscape more particularly are indeed the cultural mediators. Within translation studies, the concepts of mediation and mediator are mainly used in community interpreting contexts. With regard to literary translation, interesting work has been done by Wolf Wolf, Michaela. View all notes Mediators, as we understand them here, develop a broad range of partly overlapping transfer activities through different cultural fields literature, painting, music , different languages and spatial frontiers.
Firstly, cultural mediators undertake a variety of discursive transfer techniques. They are multilingual authors, self-translators, or translators who translate, adapt, plagiarize, summarize, censor, manipulate, etc. In this way they serve as discursive bridges between these linguistic communities. As will become clear below, the effect of these discursive transfer practices may well be to separate linguistic communities.
View all notes Secondly, mediators are often active in a variety of more or less institutionalized intercultural and inter-artistic networks. They may have corresponded with colleagues informal networks or may have founded or taken an active part in the editorial boards of magazines and periodicals, in salons, in literary and artistic associations, in art and music academies, in artists' workshops, in reading circles etc.
That is, they often have a variety of institutional mediating roles etc. Finally, a mediator can be considered a real migrant, a hybrid person, who develops transfer activities in several geo-cultural spaces, which considerably sharpens his or her intercultural and international consciousness. In sum, much more than the prominent figures canonized by literary studies and traditional national history, mediators are the true architects of common repertoires and frames of reference — for example, a model of an urban, national or international culture.
Especially in young, multilingual and heterogeneous cultures, cultural mediators perform strategic transfer roles, create new mediating practices and institutions. These complex, partially overlapping roles, which transgress linguistic, artistic and spatial boundaries, are important cultural practices but are rarely acknowledged as such or studied at large, because they transcend the traditional concepts of translation studies. In other words, research on cultural mediators also has a disciplinary plus value. The complex transfer practices that characterize multilingual contexts cannot be fully understood by translation studies' classical, binary concepts author vs.
The study of cultural mediators should therefore be interdisciplinary and collective, bringing together methods from translation sociology, descriptive translation studies, transfer studies and cultural history, in the following ways: It should analyse aspects of the socio-biography of the mediators as a way to reconstruct their social and biographical trajectories and their intercultural habitus.
How did they perceive and implement their transfer activities as a way to create new repertoires?
Nigerian Literature of French Expression
It should also analyse their networks. A network is seen here as a group of people among whom informal or institutionalized epistolary or oral exchanges pertain. Individuals and their networks are, indeed, more than translations, often the first manifestations of transfer cf. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 42 4 : — What was a mediator's role in these networks? How did these networks facilitate or control the mediator's transfer activities? It should conduct a translational analysis from a double angle. First, a comparison between the transferred products and their sources should pay special attention to the plural directions and multiple effects of continuous transfer processes of which the finished products are only the surface result.
Subsequently, comparisons are made between the different discursive transfer modes translation, adaptation, self-translation, summary, pastiche, parody. Recent studies show, in this respect, how mediators in nineteenth-century Europe combined various transfer practices translation, self-translation, retranslation, summary, parody even within one work Leerssen Leerssen, Joep.
Consequently, more work is needed to understand how translation relates to other transfer techniques and how this relation determines the specifics of translation.
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The concept of assumed transfer […] is a tool to identify and describe the forms, meanings and functions of a broad spectrum of exchange activities taking place both between and within cultures. D'hulst D'hulst, Lieven. Although Jakobson had already laid the foundation for a theory of transfer, and Even-Zohar Avermaete, Roger. Correspondence conserved in Archief en Museum voor het Vlaams Cultuurleven. For further readings, see e.
Amsterdam : John Benjamins. In comparison to this article, which focuses mainly on the processes and their actors, Weissbrod's publications focus mainly on the products. For an overview of the concept of cultural transfer, see D'hulst D'hulst, Lieven. A cultural history approach means studying the different non-discursive transfer modes painting, music, sculpture and paying special attention to the pluriform inter-artistic activities of mediators: animateurs d'art , directors of art galleries, music academies.
How did these activities transgress linguistic and spatial borders? How did they contribute to the creation of new national or international repertoires? Especially in multilingual contexts, non-discursive products can circulate faster than discursive ones. The combination of these approaches within interdisciplinary and collective studies allows an understanding of how mediators' transfer activities create new forms of writing and translating and new actor roles, and what the function and effect of these transfer activities are.
It leads to a new historiography of cultural practices. Let us zoom in on two key cultural mediators, Georges Eekhoud — and Roger Avermaete — , whose multiple transfer activities are inextricably bound up with Antwerp's history as a dual city. They represent two generations of cultural actors and are thus illustrative of the changing urban landscape between and Although their intercultural identities and complex transfer activities were an essential part of their literary lives and of the Antwerp cultural scene in that period, these identities and activities remain largely under-researched.
We hope that the following serves as a first, obviously incomplete, attempt to shed light on complex transfer activities in multicultural contexts.
Georges Eekhoud was born in the historic centre of Antwerp in in a petit-bourgeois milieu. Although his father was a Flemish civil servant and his mother a Flemish shopkeeper, Eekhoud was educated in French and lived in a predominantly francophone milieu. As he wrote in a letter dated 5 August to Herman van Puymbrouck, a fellow townsman who wrote his biography for a Dutch-language readership van Puymbrouck Van Puymbrouck, Herman. Georges Eekhoud en zijn Werk.
Antwerp : Nederlandsche Boekhandel. On my mother's side, they spoke only French. Entirely in line with other renowned francophone Flemish contemporaries like Verhaeren and Maeterlinck, Eekhoud became a francophone Flemish writer. This was also the way in which he entered the national literary historiography. However, he would continue to feel torn between the languages that made up the imaginative histories of Antwerp.
His writing career started in when he published two collections of poetry in Paris through a French publisher. From the beginning, Eekhoud thus managed to do what so many colleagues could only dream of: he transgressed urban and national boundaries to be published in the international literary centre. Both the language, French, and the genre, poetry, were typical, mainstream choices for the second half of the nineteenth century and would have contributed to his transgressing urban and national space.
View all notes Not only in educational terms, but also in terms of literary institutions, the city projected a somewhat artificial boundary. Moreover, Antwerp and its surroundings were almost always the setting of his fictional writings, in which he liked to contrast the urban cosmopolitanism of bourgeois characters with the rural particularism of the common people.
For example, in La nouvelle Carthage , the first naturalistic novel about Antwerp, or in Les libertins d'Anvers Eekhoud, Georges. Les libertins d'Anvers. Paris : Mercure de France. View all notes At first sight, there are thus few linguistic reflections of the language encounters which were part of his daily life in Antwerp and later in Brussels. However, this traditional literary portrait conceals most interesting yet unknown aspects of Eekhoud's career.
As a typical mediator, he deployed a broad range of complex transfer activities which become meaningful against the background of Antwerp's bilingual and bicultural history. Eekhoud's professional and private networks were bilingual, reflecting as such the daily encounter of languages and cultures within the urban landscape.
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On a more individual basis, friendships were established across the city's languages — for instance, with Victor Resseler, a central figure in Antwerp liberal circles and director of Ontwaking [Awakening], an Antwerp anarchist periodical for arts, sciences and sociology, with a strong Flemish militant profile Lucien Lucien, Mirande.
Eekhoud le Rauque.
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Villeneuve d'Ascq: PU Septentrion. Eekhoud was also in close contact with Conscience. Their correspondence n.