Neural Man

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Pitts, 18, was small and shy, with a long forehead that prematurely aged him, and a squat, duck-like, bespectacled face. McCulloch was a respected scientist. Pitts was a homeless runaway. It was Lettvin who introduced the two men. The moment they spoke, they realized they shared a hero in common: Gottfried Leibniz. The 17th-century philosopher had attempted to create an alphabet of human thought, each letter of which represented a concept and could be combined and manipulated according to a set of logical rules to compute all knowledge—a vision that promised to transform the imperfect outside world into the rational sanctuary of a library.

McCulloch explained to Pitts that he was trying to model the brain with a Leibnizian logical calculus. He had been inspired by the Principia , in which Russell and Whitehead tried to show that all of mathematics could be built from the ground up using basic, indisputable logic.

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Their building block was the proposition—the simplest possible statement, either true or false. From these simple propositions, they derived the full complexity of modern mathematics. Which got McCulloch thinking about neurons. Late at night, McCulloch and Pitts alone would pour the whiskey, hunker down, and attempt to build a computational brain from the neuron up. Fresh from reading a new paper by a British mathematician named Alan Turing which proved the possibility of a machine that could compute any function so long as it was possible to do so in a finite number of steps , McCulloch became convinced that the brain was just such a machine—one which uses logic encoded in neural networks to compute.

Neurons, he thought, could be linked together by the rules of logic to build more complex chains of thought, in the same way that the Principia linked chains of propositions to build complex mathematics. As McCulloch explained his project, Pitts understood it immediately, and knew exactly which mathematical tools could be used. McCulloch, enchanted, invited the teen to live with him and his family in Hinsdale, a rural suburb on the outskirts of Chicago. The Hinsdale household was a bustling, free-spirited bohemia. Chicago intellectuals and literary types constantly dropped by the house to discuss poetry, psychology, and radical politics while Spanish Civil War and union songs blared from the phonograph.

McCulloch, Pitts, and Lettvin were all poets at heart and in practice, and McCulloch and Lettvin regularly published their verse. Pitts sent this poem to McCulloch. Random remarks are traced by little boys In wet cement; synapses in the brain Die off; renewing uplift glyphs mountain And valley in peneplane; the mouth rounds noise To consonants in truisms: Thus expands law Cankering the anoetic anonymous.

We, therefore, exalt entropy and heat, Fist-fight for room, trade place, momentum, spin, Successful enough if life is undesigned.

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McCulloch had no idea how to model that mathematically. From the point of view of logic, a loop smells a lot like paradox: the consequent becomes the antecedent, the effect becomes the cause. Pitts knew how to tackle the problem. He used modulo mathematics, which deals with numbers that circle back around on themselves like the hours of a clock.

Time was removed from the equation altogether. If one were to see a lightning bolt flash on the sky, the eyes would send a signal to the brain, shuffling it through a chain of neurons. Unless, that is, the chain is a loop. In that case, the information encoding the lightning bolt just spins in circles, endlessly.

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It bears no connection to the time at which the lightning actually occurred. By the time Pitts finished calculating, he and McCulloch had on their hands a mechanistic model of the mind, the first application of computation to the brain, and the first argument that the brain, at bottom, is an information processor. Their model was vastly oversimplified for a biological brain, but it succeeded at showing a proof of principle.

Thought, they said, need not be shrouded in Freudian mysticism or engaged in struggles between ego and id.

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P itts had found in McCulloch everything he had needed—acceptance, friendship, his intellectual other half, the father he never had. For his part, McCulloch was just as enamored.

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Pitts was soon to make a similar impression on one of the towering intellectual figures of the 20th century, the mathematician, philosopher, and founder of cybernetics, Norbert Wiener. He simply walked Pitts over to a blackboard where he was working out a mathematical proof. As Wiener worked, Pitts chimed in with questions and suggestions. According to Lettvin, by the time they reached the second blackboard, it was clear that Wiener had found his new right-hand man.

So impressed was Wiener that he promised Pitts a Ph. By the fall of , Pitts had moved into a Cambridge apartment, was enrolled as a special student at MIT, and was studying under one of the most influential scientists in the world.

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It was quite a long way from blue-collar Detroit. Wiener wanted Pitts to make his model of the brain more realistic. After all, it had been Wiener who discovered a precise mathematical definition of information: The higher the probability, the higher the entropy and the lower the information content. The scientists in the room were floored. And yet, everyone who knew Pitts was sure that he could do it. As Pitts began his work at MIT, he realized that although genetics must encode for gross neural features, there was no way our genes could pre-determine the trillions of synaptic connections in the brain—the amount of information it would require was untenable.

It must be the case, he figured, that we all start out with essentially random neural networks—highly probable states containing negligible information a thesis that continues to be debated to the present day. He suspected that by altering the thresholds of neurons over time, randomness could give way to order and information could emerge. He set out to model the process using statistical mechanics. Wiener excitedly cheered him on, because he knew if such a model were embodied in a machine, that machine could learn.

Thus formed the beginnings of the group who would become known as the cyberneticians, with Wiener, Pitts, McCulloch, Lettvin, and von Neumann its core. And among this rarified group, the formerly homeless runaway stood out. When you asked him a question, you would get back a whole textbook … To him, the world was connected in a very complex and wonderful fashion. It was possible to reprogram the thing, but it took several operators several weeks to reroute all the wires and switches to do it. Von Neumann realized that it might not be necessary to rewire the machine every time you wanted it to perform a new function.

In place of neurons, he suggested vacuum tubes, which would serve as logic gates, and by stringing them together exactly as Pitts and McCulloch had discovered, you could carry out any computation. To store the programs as data, the computer would need something new: a memory. He detailed every aspect of this new computational architecture. He was teaching mathematical logic at MIT and working with Wiener on the statistical mechanics of the brain. The following year, at the Second Cybernetic Conference, Pitts announced that he was writing his doctoral dissertation on probabilistic three-dimensional neural networks.

They would be waiting with bated breath. He has become an excellent dye chemist, a good mammalogist, he knows the sedges, mushrooms and the birds of New England. He knows neuroanatomy and neurophysiology from their original sources in Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and German for he learns any language he needs as soon as he needs it. Things like electrical circuit theory and the practical soldering in of power, lighting, and radio circuits he does himself.

In my long life, I have never seen a man so erudite or so really practical.

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In June , Fortune magazine ran an article featuring the 20 most talented scientists under 40; Pitts was featured, next to Claude Shannon and James Watson. Against all odds, Walter Pitts had skyrocketed into scientific stardom. He was coming to believe that if he could work with McCulloch again, he would be happier, more productive, and more likely to break new ground. McCulloch, too, seemed to be floundering without his bootlegged collaborator. Suddenly, the clouds broke.

McCulloch jumped at the opportunity—because it meant he would be working with Pitts again. The plan for the project was to use the full arsenal of information theory, neurophysiology, statistical mechanics, and computing machines to understand how the brain gives rise to the mind. They posted a sign on the door: Experimental Epistemology. With Pitts and McCulloch together again, and with Wiener and Lettvin in the mix, everything seemed poised for progress and revolution. Neuroscience, cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer science—it was all on the brink of an intellectual explosion.

The sky—or the mind—was the limit. While in synapses in the developing brain synaptic depression has been particularly widely observed it has been speculated that it changes to facilitation in adult brains. An example of a neural circuit is the trisynaptic circuit in the hippocampus. Another is the Papez circuit linking the hypothalamus to the limbic lobe. There are several neural circuits in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. These circuits carry information between the cortex, basal ganglia , thalamus, and back to the cortex.

The largest structure within the basal ganglia, the striatum , is seen as having its own internal microcircuitry. Neural circuits in the spinal cord called central pattern generators are responsible for controlling motor instructions involved in rhythmic behaviours. Rhythmic behaviours include walking, urination , and ejaculation.

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The central pattern generators are made up of different groups of spinal interneurons. There are four principal types of neural circuits that are responsible for a broad scope of neural functions.